Mega Theory states we have a Mega Instinct – a Soul – in which it is “possible to re-interpret the rich and illuminating record of thinking about the nature of the soul” [Chomsky] within a biological, psychological and philosophical framework.
~ Richard W. Symonds
“A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO MEGA THEORY” BY RICHARD W. SYMONDS
THE MEGA INSTINCT – A Moral Faculty of the Soul
“It should be possible to reinterpret the rich and illuminating record of thinking about the nature of the soul…The study of human moral nature, within a biological framework, has developed into a rich and exciting inquiry in recent years…I believe we will find that part of our genetic capacity, which evolved over millennia, is that certain moral principles are incorporated in it; probably genetically determined. To try to discover them is, of course, a big task”
Noam Chomsky – MIT Emeritus Professor of Philosophy & Linguistics
CHAPTER 1 – The Mega Instinct and Its 7 Mega Values & 7 Motivations
1.1 MEGA Theory states we have a Mega Instinct – a two-sided moral instinct: one side consisting of 7 objective Mega Values, the other side consisting of 7 subjective Mega Motivations. It is an innate, biological instinct which governs and ‘pilots’ all other instincts; the moral faculty of the Soul.
CHAPTER 2 – Correspondence with 7 Values and 7 Motivations
2.1 MEGA Theory states the Mega Instinct’s 7 Mega Values correspond with its 7 Mega Motivations, in the sense that the 7 objective, philosophical Values and the 7 subjective, psychological Motivations are the same – which are:
CHAPTER 3 – The Anselm Acid Test
3.1 MEGA Theory states the Mega Instinct enables us to discern both the 7 Mega Values and the corresponding 7 Mega Motivations by using The Anselm Acid Test.
THEORY & PRACTICE
3.2 MEGA THEORY states we are uniquely endowed with a Mega Instinct – a
moral instinct made up of seven Mega Motivations (or Mega Values) –
which is both immanent within, and transcendent of, all other instincts
3.3 MEGA THEORY also states these seven Mega Values exist objectively
and independently of the human mind (Moral Realism) – and our
subjective actions, thoughts, ideas and beliefs discover (rather than
create) those moral Values eg Plato’s Recollection Theory.
3.4 MEGA THEORY states these seven Values are objectively real – such
as Truth, Beauty and Love – and we are subjectively conscious of these
Values through our Mega Instinct – a kind of ‘Seventh Sense’.
Tarski’s Correspondence Theory of Truth, Popper’s Scientific Method and
Joad’s Immanence-Transcendence (IT) Theory, are closely associated with
this Mega Theory – along with Chomsky’s Theory of Language Acquisition.
3.5 MEGA THEORY states we are motivated by seven perennial Values (Mega
Motivations), of which we can conceive of nothing greater (&
de-motivated by their absence) :
1. Beauty (No Beauty)
2. Freedom (No Freedom)
3. Happiness (No Happiness)
4. Life (No Life)
5. Love (No Love)
6. Peace (No Peace)
7. Truth (No Truth)
3.6 MEGA THEORY states we are motivated by that which we most value.
If we discover what we value, we will discover what motivates us. ‘The
Anselm Acid Test’ is used to discover what we most value; and thus we
can discover what motivates us.
3.7 MEGA THEORY is based on a simple idea – so simple it can look like a truism : WE ARE MOTIVATED BY THAT WHICH WE VALUE – WE VALUE THAT WHICH MOTIVATES US WE ARE MEGA MOTIVATED BY THAT WHICH WE MOST VALUE – WE VALUE MOST THAT WHICH MEGA MOTIVATES US
It is critical for us, therefore, to understand what motivates us,
and why. Equally, it is critical to understand what we most value.
3.8 MEGA THEORY, in practice, states we discover what motivates us the
most, and what we most value, by simply applying the Anselm Acid Test –
using our Moral Instinct – by asking ourselves the following
questions…in other words, we are using & applying our Moral Instinct
when we ask this Anselm Acid Test Question :
“In my mind, can I conceive of anything more important, or greater than
…. ?” (Insert any word you consider important eg health, wealth,
3.9 WE will find that our chosen words will fall eventually into one or
other of these seven ‘baskets’ (with some occasional overlap)
Our Mega Instinct will naturally put these ‘baskets’ – the seven Mega
Values (or Mega Motivations) which make up our Mega Instinct.
We use our Mega Instinct to discover what we ultimately value, & what ultimately motivates us – by applying The Anselm Acid Test.
The Anselm Acid Test (“The AA Test”)
3.10 HOW to apply the Theory to Practice:
3.11 APPLY The Anselm Acid Test to discover what motivates us (& why),
and to discover what we most value (& why) – using our Mega Instinct
(“If we don’t use it, we lose it”).
3.12 THE 7 Mega Values & 7 Mega Motivations
1 – BEAUTY (RED)
(i) Beauty – The Quotations
Music & Dance
(ii) Beauty – The Analysis
(a) “Emma Johnson (Clarinettist) walks onto a concert platform, and
suddenly transforms herself into an expressive instrument of sublime
beauty” – The Guardian
(Source : Crawley Hawth Theatre – August/September/October 2012
Programme – Sat 20 October – Royal Philharmonic Orchestra – Emma
Johnson plays Mozart, Schubert & Beethoven – Page 12 & 20)
(b) “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the
Sublime and Beautiful”
(Oxford World’s Classics) (Paperback)
Edmund Burke, Adam Phillips
“I’m gratified you’re keeping Burke’s text on the Sublime available in
an inexpensive edition. Thanks again for keeping it easily accessible.
It is a major document not only for the post-modern and avant-garde
discussion of the sublime, but also for gender theory.”–Leonard L.
Duroche, University of Minnesota
An eloquent and sometimes even erotic book, the Philosophical Enquiry
was long dismissed as a piece of mere juvenilia. However, Burke’s
analysis of the relationship between emotion, beauty, and art form is
now recognized as not only an important and influential work of
aesthetic theory, but also one of the first major works in European
literature on the Sublime, a subject that has fascinated thinkers from
Kant and Coleridge to the philosophers and critics of today. This is
the only available edition of the work.
(c) Library of the Greatest Beauty
The Mega Library of the Mittyan World
2 – FREEDOM (ORANGE)
(i) Freedom – The Quotations
Freedoms & Rights
“The spark of liberty in the mind and spirit of man cannot be long
extinguished; it will break into flames that will destroy every
coercion which seems to limit it” ~ Herbert Hoover (1874 – 1964),
American mining engineer, humanitarian and administrator; 31st
president of the USA (1929 – 33)
Responsibilities & Duties
(ii) Freedom – The Analysis
“The secret of happiness is freedom, and the secret of freedom is
courage.” ~ Thucydides (circa 460 – 400 BC), Greek historian
“Liberty cannot be established without morality, nor morality without
faith.” ~ Alexis de Tocqueville (1805 – 59), French political thinker
3 – HAPPINESS (YELLOW)
(i) Happiness – The Quotations
(ii) Happiness – The Analysis
(Source : “The Republic” by Plato – Translated by Desmond Lee. With an
Introduction by Melissa Lane – Penguin Classics-Pearson 2007)
Page 40 – Part 1 (Book 1)
“This section claims to prove that the just man is happier than the
Similarly at 361d, Glaucon asks Socrates to answer the question whether
the just or unjust man is happier; and the theme of happiness will
recur throughout the dialogue, as eg on 419-421c.
THE COMMON GREEK WORD FOR ‘HAPPY’ (EUDAIMON) HAS OVERTONES RATHER
DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF THE ENGLISH WORD.
It implies less an immediate state of mind or feeling (‘I feel happy
today’), than a more permanent condition of life or disposition of
character; something between prosperity and integration of personality,
though of course feeling is involved too”.
4 – LIFE (GREEN)
(1) Life – The Quotations
Consciousness, Sub-Consciousness & Unconsciousness
Hunger & Thirst – Food & Drink
Incentives – eg Money
Senses x 5
Sex, Attraction, “Fancy”
Sleep & Dreams
(ii) Life – The Analysis
5 – LOVE (LIGHT BLUE)
(i) Love – The Quotations
Compassion & Understanding
Self-Worth & Worthiness
“A big guy with a big heart…generous, gentle, and very kind. He
exuded warmth and love from his whole being” (Of Big Jim Sullivan –
(ii) Love – The Analysis
6 – PEACE (DARK BLUE)
(i) Peace – The Quotations
(ii) Peace – The Analysis
“Peace hath her victories, no less renowned than war”
~ John Milton (1608 – 74), English Poet and Politician
(Hat-Tip : Paul)
7 – TRUTH (PURPLE)
(i) Truth – The Quotations
Knowledge & Understanding
Moral & Ethical
(ii) Truth – The Analysis
CHAPTER 4 – Transcendence and Immanence
4.1 MEGA Theory states the Mega Instinct is both transcendent and immanent – in the sense that its 7 Mega Values are transcendent of, but also immanent within, its 7 Mega Motivations. Thus, the Mega Instinct’s 7 Values causally affect its 7 Motivations – and vice-versa.
CHAPTER 5 – Lack of Correspondence between Values and Motivations
5.1 MEGA Theory states that if there is a lack of correspondence between the Mega Instinct’s 7 Values and 7 Motivations – if they are ‘out of sync’ – there will be a lack of value and a lack of motivation.
CHAPTER 6 – Problems
6.1 MEGA Theory states specific Problems are created by this lack of correspondence between Values and Motivations.
CHAPTER 7 – Solutions
7.1 MEGA Theory states that specific Solutions can be provided to meet this lack of correspondence between Values and Motivations.
THE Mega Instinct is the medium through which we think for
ourselves, freely and clearly.
Reclaiming this Instinct and making it our own (no-one else’s) – a
difficult task – will be a critical pre-condition for Humanity’s
survival in the 21st Century.
A greater understanding of our moral consciousness, and its mega
instinct, is a critical pre-condition for humanity’s survival and
well-being in the 21st century.
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Bering, J. (Nicholas Brealey 2011). “The God Instinct”.
Broackes, J. (Oxford University Press 2012). “Iris Murdoch, Philosopher
– A Collection of Essays”.
Chomsky, N. (2000). “On Nature and Language”.
Chomsky, N. (Columbia 2016). “What Kind of Creatures Are We?”
Cogswell, D. (Writers & Readers 1996). “Chomsky For Beginners”.
Darwin, C. (1958). “The Morality of Evolution”.
Eccles, J. (Springer-Verlag 1994). “How The Self Controls Its Brain”.
Goetz, S. & Taliaferro C. (Wiley-Blackwell 2011), “A Brief History of
Haidt, Jonathan (Psychological Review 108 – 2001), “The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail : A Social Intuitionist approach to Moral Judgement”
Hauser, M.D. (Ecco 2006). “Moral Minds – How Nature Designed Our
Universal Sense Of Right and Wrong”.
Hauser, M.D. (In Preparation). “Evilicious – Explaining Our Evolved
Taste For Being Bad”.
Institute of Moralogy. “Moralogy”.
Joad, C.E.M. (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner 1926). “The Babbitt Warren” –
CEMJ analyses America by Plato’s Forms : Truth, Beauty & Goodness.
Joad, C.E.M. (First published Victor Gollancz 1938. Reprint Greenwood
1969). “Guide to Moral and Political Philosophy”.
Joad, C.E.M. (1940). “Appeal to Philosophers”. Proceedings of the
Aristotelian Society, London.
Joad, C.E.M. (Faber & Faber 1952). “Recovery of Belief – A Restatement
of Christian Philosophy”.
Joad, C.E.M. (First published 1944. Last reprint 1971). “Teach Yourself
Joad, C.E.M. (First published 1925)(1928?). Reprint Taylor &
Francis-Routledge 2008). “Thrasymachus – The Future of Morals”.
Joad, C.E.M. (First published 1926)(1928?). Reprint Taylor &
Francis-Routledge 2008). “Diogenes – The Future of Leisure”.
Lakoff, G. “Moral Politics”.
Liangkang, NI (Higher Education Press & Springer-Verlag 2009). “Moral
Instinct and Moral Judgement”.
Magee, B. (Fontana 1982). “Popper”
Maslow, A. “Toward a Psychology of Being”.
Maslow, A. (Penguin 1977). “Beyond The Farther Reaches Of Human Nature”.
Mikhail, J.M. (2006). “Rawls’ Linguistic Analogy” and “Universal Moral
Oddie, G. (Oxford University Press 2005). “Value, Reality, and Desire”.
Peters, R.S. (George Allen & Unwin 1966). “Ethics and Education”.
Pinker, S. (Morrow 1994). “The Language Instinct”.
Pinker, S. (1994). “The Moral Instinct” – Magazine Article.
Plato, (Oxford University Press 2008), “Republic”.
Rawls, J. (1971). “A Theory of Justice”.
Rawls, J. (2001). “Justice as Fairness”.
Schofield, Robert E. (Penn 2004). “The Enlightened Joseph Priestley – A Study of His Life and Work from 1773 to 1804”
Schopenhauer, A. (1897). “The Moral Instinct : Essays on Human Nature”.
Searle, J. (Oxford University Press 2004). “Mind – A Brief
Shafer-Landau, R. (Oxford University Press 2003), “Moral Realism – A
Singer, P. (1993). “Practical Ethics”.
Stella, T. (Sorin 2001). “The God Instinct”.
Stevenson, L. (Oxford University Press 1987). “Seven Theories Of Human
Sutherland, A. (Longmans, Green & Co 1898). “The Origin and Growth of
the Moral Instinct” (Vols 1 & 2)
Swinburne, R. (Oxford University Press 1986). “The Evolution of the
Urmson, J.D. & Ree, J. (Routledge 1992). “The Concise Encyclopedia of
Western Philosophy and Philisophers”.
Widdows, H. “The Moral Vision of Iris Murdoch”.
Appendix 1 – An Evolutionary History Of The Moral Instinct –
Motivations, Values & Consciousness
1400 BC (circa)
Egyptian Empire – Hierachical Model of the World – Philosophers,
Divines & Theologians
Genesis ‘Breath of Life’ Theory – Bible – Moses
“God…breathed…the Breath of Life, and Man became a living Soul” –
Genesis 2 : 7
700 BC (circa)
Greek Empire – Hedonistic/Mathematical Model of the World
“Prime Mover” Theory – Epimenides
“In God we live and move and have our Being” – Acts 17 : 28
400 BC (circa)
“Personality” Theory – Hippocrates
1. Choleric 2. Sanguine 3. Phlegmatic 4. Melancholic
347 BC (circa)
“Three Part Whole/Trinity” Theory – Plato
1. Appetite 2. Reason 3. Spirit
100 AD (circa)
Roman Empire – Hierachical/Hedonistic Model of the World
“Three Part Whole/Trinity” Theory – Irenaeus
1. Body 2. Soul 3. Spirit
200 AD (circa)
“Spirit” Theory – Galen
1. Natural Spirit 2. Vital Spirit 3. Animal Spirit
British Empire & “The West” – Hierachical/Scientific/Materialistic
Model of the World – Scientists, Psychologists, Sociologists
Instinct, Urge & Drive Theories (Mind = Body)
1900’s (Early 20th century)
“Evolution” Theory – Darwin. A biological, evolutionary theory of Man’s
Human nature – as Animal nature.
“Unconscious Instinct & Urge” Theory – Freud – Id, Ego, Super Ego,
Alter Ego, Libido, Unconscious, Sub-Conscious
“Instinct” Theory – McDougall
“Drive” Theory – Woodworth
Balance, Equilibrium, Equity & Dissonance Theories (Body + Mind)
1900-1999 AD (Mid to Late 20th century)
British & American Empires
“Balance” Theory – Cannon
“Complex Man” Theory – Schein
“Equity-Equilibrium” Theory – Adams
“Balance & Equilibrium” Theory – Barnard-Simon
“Orientation” Theory – Goldthorpe & Lockwood
“Perspective” Theory – Pullinger
“Cognitive Dissonance-Balance” Theory – Festinger
Needs, Desires, Goals, Expectancy, Achievement, Success & Fulfilment
Theories (Mind + Body)
1950-1999 AD (late 20th century)
“Needs” Theory – Murray
“Economic Man” – Money Needs – Theory – Taylor
“Social Man” – Social Needs – Theory – Mayo
“Hierachy of Needs” Theory – Maslow
“X & Y Needs” Theory – McGregor
“Erg Needs” Theory – Alderfer
“Two-Factor Needs” Theory – Herzberg
“Achievement Needs” Theory – McClelland
“Goal-Setting” Theory – Locke
“Attribution” Theory – Kelley
“Expectancy” Theory – Vroom & Lawler
Values, Vision & Holistic, Cognitive & Moral Theories (Mind + Body +
2000 AD (Early 21st century)
American Empire & The West
“Vision” Theory – Powell
“Looking Glass” Theory – Cooley
“Personality” Theory – Jung
“Personality-Soul” Theory – Joad
“Meta-Motivation” Theory – Maslow
“Mega Motivation” Theory – Symonds
“Language Faculty” Theory – Chomsky
“Language Instinct” Theory – Pinker
“Moral Instinct” Theory – Hauser
“Mega Instinct” Theory – Symonds
INDEX OF NAMES
NOTES – FRONT COVER (proposed)
NOTES – INTRODUCTION
Noam Chomsky – MIT Emeritus Professor of Philosophy & Linguistics,
“It should…be possible to reinterpret the rich and illuminating record of thinking about the nature of the soul…The study of human moral nature, within a biological framework, has developed into a rich and exciting inquiry in recent years…
Why does everyone take for granted that we don’t learn to grow arms, but rather, are designed to grow arms ? Similarly, we should conclude that in the case of the development of moral systems, there’s a biological endowment which in effect requires us to develop a system of moral judgement and a theory of justice, if you like, that in fact has detailed applicability over an enormous range…
We are, after all, biological organisms – not angels. If humans are part of the natural world, not supernatural beings, then human intelligence has its scope and limits, determined by initial design. We can thus anticipate certain questions will not fall within [our] cognitive reach, just as rats are unable to run mazes with numerical properties, lacking the appropriate concepts. Such questions we might call ‘mysteries-for-humans’, just as some questions pose ‘mysteries-for-rats’. Among these mysteries may be questions we raise, and others we do not know how to formulate properly or at all…
“We will discover what we can about the nature of the world, and, among the truths about it, I believe we will find that part of our genetic capacity, which evolved over millennia, is that CERTAIN MORAL PRINCIPLES ARE INCORPORATED IN IT; probably genetically determined. To try to discover them is, of course, a big task”.
Marc D. Hauser – “Moral Minds” author, writes:
“We evolved a moral instinct, a capacity that naturally grows within
each child, designed to generate rapid judgements about what is morally
right or wrong, based on an unconscious grammar of action.
Part of this machinery was designed by the blind hand of Darwinian
selection, millions of years before our species evolved; other parts
were added or upgraded over the evolutionary history of our species,
and are unique both to humans and to our moral psychology.These ideas
draw on insights from another instinct : language.”
Sir John Eccles – “Evolution of the Brain, Creation of the Self, p.
241″, writes :
I maintain that the human mystery is incredibly demeaned by scientific
reductionism, with its claim in promissory materialism to account
eventually for all of the spiritual world in terms of patterns of
neuronal activity. This belief must be classed as a superstition. . . .
we have to recognize that we are spiritual beings with souls existing
in a spiritual world as well as material beings with bodies and brains
existing in a material world”
Thomas Jefferson – A Founding Father, Principal Author of Declaration of Independence (1776) and 3rd President of United States (1801-1809), writes :
“The [moral] sense is as much a part of his [human] nature, as the sense of hearing, seeing, feeling…”
NOTES – CHAPTER 1
1.1 THIS book proposal is the outcome of research into the moral
faculty, values and motivations, and brings together the disciplines of
moral philosophy, philosophy of mind, theology, psychology, axiology
Why is our consciousness ‘soaked’ in the moral – like the air we
Why is our life ‘soaked’ in the moral – at home, at work, on television
& radio news, in documentaries, films, newspapers & magazines ?
Why is politics, business, science, religion, language, literature,
music, psychology, philosophy all ‘soaked’ in the moral ?
If the above questions have been asked, and understood, the Mega
Instinct is at work.
NOTES – CHAPTER 2
WHAT’S THE BIG IDEA ?
2.1 THE Mega Instinct is our primary Instinct which is the moral faculty of the Soul.
2.2 THE writer weaves together the core ideas of such figures as Plato,
Alexander Sutherland, CEM Joad, Abraham Maslow, John Eccles, Goetz
Taliaferro, Marc Hauser and John Mikhail to arrive at this new approach
to the Moral Faculty and the Soul.
The writer also has a conviction that a greater understanding of these
ideas is a critical pre-condition for humanity’s survival.
By using tightly-connected arguments to a set of conclusions, the book
proposal analyses the idea that our Moral Instinct is the primary
instinct, and also the moral core of the Soul.
(1) Combine and synthesize a naturalistic, evolutionary approach to
motivation, with a form of moral realism – maintaining the objectivity
(2) Weave together a comprehensive and coherent account of motivation
and value, from a wide variety of disciplines – while sensitive to
scientific and philosophical disputes.
(3) Revive the philosophical contribution of CEM Joad, whose final and
seminal works on moral philosophy have been unduly neglected.
(3) Identify the principles governing the Moral Instinct – with its 7
Mega Values & Mega Motivations
(4) Revolutionize Moral Philosophy (Ethics), Philosophy of Mind
(Consciousness & Cognition), Psychology (Moral Psychology) and Biology
The purpose of this book proposal is straightforward. It seeks to show
that within this Mega Instinct there is a set of 7 subjective moral
motivations in our internal world (Mind and Body), which correlate with
a set of 7 objective moral values in the external world (Soul).
The writer offers a speculative account of how moral consciousness may
arise from an interaction of 7 values & 7 motivations.
One of the more controversial claims of the writer is that this Mega
Instinct may not only be Consciousness, but may also what philosophers
call the ‘Qualia’; that which has an independent existence in the
External World – the main argument being that the properties attributed
to the ‘Qualia’ relate to the principles of both values and motivations.
The writer claims our Mega Instinct holds certain moral principles
about the world, and that this is the only reason we are morally
Research subsequent to this book suggests a thread of moral theory
which goes back for centuries.
A key philosophical method outlined in the book is the ‘Anselm Acid
Test’, which claims that our Mega Instinct, rightly conceived, helps us
to discover – in simple steps – what we value, what motivates us – and
The writer ambitiously confronts such questions as :
Do the 7 motivations have an evolutionary origin ? If so, what is it?
In what sense are the 7 objective values objective?
How & why do the 7 values match the 7 motivations?
How does the correlation of Values & Motivations explain, and result
How is it explained when the correlation of values to motivations
fails, and people
intentionally act contrary to the 7 values?
What specifically are the 7 Mega Values & 7 Mega Motivations?
The book proposal concludes by suggesting a greater understanding of
this Moral Faculty is a critical pre-condition for humanity’s survival
in the 21st century.
NOTES – CHAPTER 3
CEM JOAD – THE MORAL INSTINCT AS “PERSONALITY” OR “THE SOUL”
THE ‘TRANSCENDENCE-IMMANENCE FORMULA’ (“THE TI TEST”)
The Sonata Illustration
3.1.1 “CONSIDER the movement of a sonata.
It is a collection of musical sounds, notes and phrases which science
analyses into vibrations in the atmosphere.
Such analysis does not, however, give a complete account of it; for it
is also a series of notes and phrases arranged in a particular pattern.
This pattern prescribes the order in which the notes are arranged , and
the intervals between them.
The pattern is imposed by the mind of the composer .
The sounds, as arranged in the pattern, are at once the expression and
the embodiment of the musical idea which the composer conceives.
3.1.2 “MANY would say that the sounds, as arranged in the patterns,
constitute a unity or a whole.
In using such an expression they would, I think, wish to imply, first,
that the whole is more than the arithmetical sum total of the different
sounds; secondly, that the sounds, when heard in the context of the
whole are, precisely because of their relation to the whole and to one
another, different from what they would have been, if they were taken
out of their context and heard in isolation.
3.1.3 “IT is because of the immanence of the musical idea that the
sounds are arranged as they are, and sound as they do.
If it were not immanent, the arrangement would not occur, and the
sounds would sound differently.
Nevertheless, most people would agree, the immanent idea is not
exhausted or used up by any one embodiment of it in a particular set of
3.1.4 “FOR a musical idea is more than any particular rendering of it,
more, indeed, than any number of renderings of it.
It would still exist in the composer’s mind, even if the music which
embodied it were never written down.
This could be put by saying that it transcends the renderings of it.
The Personality Illustration
3.1.5 “CONSIDER now a personality.
It is interesting, first, to consider the account which the sciences
might give of a personality.
Of its different ingredients the sciences have, indeed, much to tell us.
Each separate aspect of a human being is assigned to a special science,
and of this aspect the relevant science purports to give a reasonably
We will suppose that these various accounts are drawn up and colllated.
3.1.6 “WE will imagine ourselves to begin with the physiological
account in terms of tubes and pipes, nerves and bones and blood vessels.
These, presumably, can be analysed into their chemical compounds, and
there will be, therefore, a chemical account in terms of molecules and
These, again, can be analysed in terms of their atomic constituents and
to the chemist’s, therefore we must add the physicist’s account.
3.1.7 “THERE is also the psychologist’s accounts of a man’s
consciousness in terms of mental events, images, sensations and so
forth, with special departmental accounts such as the behaviorist’s, in
terms of language habits and and conditioned reflexes, and the
psychoanalyst’s in terms of unconscious desire and promptings of the
3.1.8 “FROM other points of view, there is the ‘economic man’ and there
is the ‘median man’ of the statistician; there is a man from the
standpoint of the biologist , and man as he appears to the
3.1.9 “Each of these accounts could in theory be made accurate and
complete – complete, that is to say, so far as it goes; yet each would
be couched in different terms.
To say that no one of these accounts conveys the whole truth about a
man, but describes only some particular aspect of him which has been
selected for special attention, would be to state a commonplace.
The Personality as the Soul – “Personality Plus”
3.1.10 “BUT we can go further.
Let us suppose that all the different accounts, the physiological, the
chemical, the physical, the psychological, the behaviouristic, the
psychoanalytical, the economic, the statistical, the biological, and
the anthropological were collated, supplemented with other accurate but
partial accounts, and worked up into a comprehensive survey, they would
still fail to constitute the THE truth about a man.
3.1.11 “AND they would fail to do this, not because some particular
piece of information had been left out, or some particular point of
view forgotten – for no matter how complete the collection of
scientific accounts might be, the truth would still elude them – but
because they would remain only a set of separate accounts of different
parts or aspects; and a man is more than the different parts of aspects
which are ingredients of him.
True knowledge of a man is not, in other words, the sum-total of the
complete and accurate accounts of all his different aspects, even if
these accounts could be made exhaustive.
3.1.12 “TRUE knowledge is, or at least includes, knowledge of the man
as a whole.
To know a man as a whole is to know him as a personality, for a
personality is the whole which, while it integrates all the parts and
so includes them within itself is, nevertheless, something over and
above their sum.
Now to know a man as a personality is to know him in a manner of which
science takes no cognisance.
It is to know him as a friend (an individual?)
3.1.13 “THE whole personality is, then, more than the sum of the parts
upon whose combination, according to the account given by the sciences,
3.1.14 “BUT SUPPOSE THAT TO THINK OF THE PERSONALITY AS RESULTING FROM
THE CONCURRENCE OF A NUMBER OF PARTS WAS MISLEADING FROM THE FIRST.
SUPPOSE THAT THE PERSONALITY IS LOGICALLY PRIOR, AND THAT THE PARTS
DERIVE FROM IT, IN THE SENSE THAT IT IS IN THE PARTS THAT IT EXPRESSES
ITSELF, AND FINDS ITS EMBODIMENT.
3.1.15 “AND first, in the bodily part : a man’s mouth, we would say,
tells the discerning observer much about the man; if he is happy,
good-tempered, cheerful, the corners of his mouth tend to turn up; if
gloomy, irritable, depressed, down.
3.1.16 “A man’s nature, again, is thought to be expressed in his smile.
It is charming, friendly, sweet or hypocritical.
3.1.17 “OR, a man’s nature is expressed in, and deducible from, a
grooved forehead and lines about the eyes; the eyes, we say, are the
windows of the soul.
3.1.18 “THERE are refinements in these matter.
Thus Shaw talks of the wide spreading nostrils of the dramatic orator,
and the long upper lip of the comedian.
Even a man’s gait, confident and jaunty, or drooping and dragging,
tells us something about his nature.
3.1.19 “IT is expressed, secondly, in his psychological life.
HIS MOODS , TEMPERS, HOPES AND FEARS, ARE ALL, PSYCHOLOGY TEACHES,
EXPRESSIONS OF A CERTAIN TYPE OF NATURE. THEY DO NOT CONSTITUTE THE
NATURE, THEY ARE THE WAYS IN WHICH IT SHOWS ITSELF.
3.1.20 “ALL these are ways of expressing the truth that the personality
is IMMANENT in the ‘parts’, IMMANENTin the bodlily behaviour , IMMANENT
in the psychological moods.
The ‘parts’, as in the case of the other illustrations, are what they
are because of their relation to one another, and to the IMMANENT whole
which expresses itself in them.
3.1.21 “IN the case of this illustration, it is hard to think of the
‘parts’ as existing separately from the informing personality.
In so far as they can be conceived of as doing so, they would, it is
obvious, be different in isolation from what they are in the context of
3.1.22 “CHRISTIANITY regards the whole, which I have been calling the
personality, as an immortal soul which will survive the break-up of the
body, even if it did not precede its formation.
3.1.23 “IF this is true, there is a sense in which the personality is
more than its expressions, both in the body and the psyche, so that
besides being IMMANENT, it is also TRANSCENDENT.”
CEM Joad – Christian Philosopher
3.1.24 CYRIL Edwin Mitchinson Joad made a highly original contribution
to philosophy – albeit late in life – that of Christian
Philosophy; a valuable contribution almost entirely disregarded in the
Century. CEM Joad said in 1943 – in characteristic, ebullient style –
“If you object that Christ was not a
philosopher, I can only beg you to wait until you know as much
philosophy as I do before venturing to contradict.”
3.1.25 JOAD wrote ‘The Recovery of Belief – A Restatement of Christian
Philosophy’, a year before his death. In this, he clearly explains with
great originality, his Christian ‘Transcendence- Immanence’ Theory of
Joad’s Christian Theory of the Nature of Values
3.1.26 JOAD adhered to the ‘philosophia perennis’, which affirms that
Values areObjective not Subjective, and can reduce themselves to Truth,
Goodness and Beauty.
These three Values are “OBJECTIVE in the sense that they are found by
the human mind – found as ‘given’ in things – and not projected into
contributed to them by our own minds, and ULTIMATE, in the sense that
value can be shown to be valued because of the relation of the thing
some one or other of the three Values. Thus, while other things are
means to one or other of these three, they are valued as ends in
3.1.27 JOAD again : “Moreover, these Values are not just arbitrary,
pieces of cosmic
furniture lying about, as it were, in the universe without explanation,
or connection, but are revelations of a unity that underlies them; are,
fact, the ways in which God reveals Himself to Man. Hence, those human
activities which consist in, or which arise out of, the pursuit of
cultivation of moral goodness, or the creation and enjoyment of Beauty,
that we cannot help but value and revere them.”
3.1.28 “WHAT we call the Values – and it is under this term that the
may, I think, be most appropriately referred to in respect of their
outstanding manifestations, as Truth, Goodness and Beauty – are the
modes of God’s
revelation of His Nature to man. For if this is indeed the case, the
revelation must be regarded as the IMMANENCE of a TRANSCENDENT Being in
which, though it manifests, is itself other than, the Being manifested.
3.1.29 “NOW, we cannot, I suggest, expect to achieve a ‘know-how’ of
the mode of
manifestation of a Divine Being …”
The Soul (or Personality) as the Mega Instinct – The Mega Instinct as
3.2. MEGA THEORY STATES THAT WHAT CEM JOAD CALLS THE PERSONALITY, OR
SOUL, IS THE MEGA INSTINCT
3.3 THE Mega Instinct, as defined, is our Soul – a moral instinct of 7
values and motivations.
This book proposal therefore directly impacts on Moral Philosophy
(Meta-Ethics), Philosophy of Mind (Consciousness), Axiology (Values) &
It aims to connect a set of 7 innate motivations with a set of 7
These motivations and values are specified, and then cross-connected.
3.4 THERE are Two Orders of Reality – the Internal World and the
The Mega Instinct resides in – and bridges – both the Internal and
External Worlds, being both immanent within the Internal World by way
of the Mega Instinct, but also transcendent of it in the External World.
The book synthesises the work of CEM Joad (The Soul/Transcendence & Its
Personality/Immanence), John Eccles ‘The Self/Soul & Its Brain/Body),
Noam Chomsky, Marc Hauser, Abraham Maslow and Others.
The book thus provides a compelling Moral Theory of Consciousness –
“The Moral Instinct Theory”.
3.5 WE are moral beings – which uniquely separates us from other
species. Our lives are ‘soaked’ in the moral – we live and breathe it.
Moral values & motivations cannot be ’emptied’ from language.
‘Draining out’ the moral puts humanity’s sanity seriously at risk.
Therefore, moral primacy is a pre-condition for humanity’s survival.
Our Mega Instinct thus becomes a critical part of humanity’s survival
for the 21st century – and beyond.
3.6 MEGA Theory states if anyone understands the above (.1.1.1/2), then
they have just used their Mega Instinct …….. A Moral Sense with the
capability of governing all other
senses (& instincts).
3.7 MONKEYS would be hard-pressed to understand this – a
fact of language acquisition, which serves to illustrate the uniqueness
of Man and his
Humanity (& Moral Instinct).
3.8 THE Principles of the Moral Faculty and the Soul – The Individual
(a) “Treat others as you would like others to treat you” (‘The Golden
(b) “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same
time, will that it should become a universal law.”(Kant’s ‘Categorical
(c) “People should be free to do as they want (the liberty principle),
as long as they don’t harm others (the harm principle)”.
(JS Mill’s ‘Moral Utilitarianism’)
3.9 THE Principles of the Moral Faculty and the Soul – The Society
(a) The American Declaration – 1776
3. Pursuit of Happiness
(b) The French Declaration – 1789
(c) The United Nations Declaration – 1948
3. Security of Person
(d) Chomsky & The 3 Preconditions For Humanity’s Survival
1. Freedom – Liberty
NOTES – CHAPTER 4
SO WHAT ?
4.1 DARWIN’S old Theory of Evolution (& the monolithic body of
knowledge which has now grown out of it) is challenged by Mega Instinct
Theory – Galileo-style.
4.2 MEGA Theory fundamentally changes the way we see Our Selves, and
our place in the Universe – just as Galileo fundamentally changed the
way we saw Our Selves on Earth, in relation to the Sun.
4.3 MAN is not just a Human (Animal) Being; Man is also a Moral
It is the human difference.
4.4 NEWTON’S Theory was ground-breaking – like Darwin’s – but it was
replaced by a
better one – Einstein’s Relativity Theory. And so with Mega Theory.
4.5 MEGA Instinct Theory corresponds with the truth, and has a greater
‘ring of truth’ than the Theories of Darwin, Freud, Skinner, or Dawkins.
4.6 THE Theory’s foundation is primarily one of philosophy (eg Plato,
Kant, Joad, Chomsky & Rawls), although it clearly impacts on other
disciplines, such as Psychology, Biology, Neuro-Biology & Linguistics
(eg Abraham ‘Metamotivations’ Maslow, Marc ‘Moral Minds’ Hauser, John
‘The Self’ Eccles & Noam ‘Language Faculty’ Chomsky).
4.7 MEGA Theory is designed to revolutionise how we look at ourselves –
no longer ‘Animal Man’ (eg Darwin, Freud, Skinner) but Moral Man.
NOTES – CHAPTER 5
WHAT IS MEGA INSTINCT THEORY SPECIFICALLY ABOUT ?
5.1 THIS Theory is about The Mega Instinct; a Moral Instinct, made up
of 7 Mega Values (or Mega Motivations), which makes us uniquely & fully
human; a controlling Instinct which is both immanent within – and
transcendent of – all our other instincts.
5.2 THE Theory shows how we use our Mega Instinct to discover what we
value – and what motivates us – by applying The Anselm Acid Test.
5.3 WE are uniquely endowed with a Mega Instinct – a moral instinct
made up of 7 Values/Motivations – which is both immanent within, and
transcendent of, all other instincts.
5.4 MEGA Theory states there are seven moral structures , hard-wired
within the Mega Instinct; the controlling moral instinct which is both
immanent within – and transcendent of – all other instincts within our
biology (or Plato’s ‘soul’, mind & body, personality,
5.5 THIS Theory of Moral Realism stands in direct opposition to Moral
5.6 WITHOUT this Mega Instinct, we would have made ourselves extinct
many thousands of years ago.
5.7 THOSE in power who seek to control us know they have to control our
Mega Instinct. If we regain and reclaim control of this Instinct, they
no longer have that power or control over us – or less so.
NOTES – CHAPTER 6
WHAT ARE THE MAIN AIMS & OBJECTIVES – AND PURPOSE – FOR THIS MEGA
6.1 TO produce a practical philosophy textbook on Moral Consciousness,
‘up & running’ by the Stedham Festival of Thought 2013 – to mark the
60th Anniversary of CEM Joad (1891-1953) – author of
6.2 TO establish a Moral Theory which will vanquish the obsolete
philosophy of Moral Relativism, and revolutionise & radically transform
the philosophy of Moral Realism.
6.3 TO create a ground-breaking Moral Theory, to be considered one of
the most important contributions to the revolution in Humanities &
Social Sciences – especially Philosophy & Psychology – in the early
6.4 TO help spark a revolution in philosophy through ‘The Mega
Instinct” idea, challenging the ‘Relativist’ approach of Wittgenstein &
The Vienna School; the dominant
idealogy underlying Western culture for the last 70 years.
6.5 TO help spark a revolution in psychology, biology & the social
sciences, through his Mega Motivation Theory – a ‘by-product’ of Mega
Theory – by challenging (& vanquishing) the ‘scientific management’
approach to behaviour; the dominant corporate idealogy which prevailed
in the late 20th century – and still does.
6.6 TO help influence many other related disciplines, by establishing
The Gatwick School of Philosophy – a school of thought in which Mega
Theory can provide ‘cutting-edge’ solutions to 21st century problems.
6.7 TO show that a greater understanding, and application, of Mega
Theory will be a critical pre-condition to Humanity’s survival in the
NOTES – CHAPTER 7
WHAT IS THIS THEORY DOING BETTER THAN OTHER RELATED THEORIES ?
7.1 CHOMSKY’s Language Theory, Pinker’s “Language Instinct”, Hauser’s
“Moral Minds” & Maslow’s ‘Metamotivations’ are firmly rooted in our
biology & psychology.
7.2 “MEGA Instinct” Theory – with CEM Joad’s ‘Transcendence-Immanence’
– is rooted firmly both in our biology & psychology (immanent within)
and outside of them (transcendent of)…”unboundedness”.
7.3 NOAM Chomsky has written : We are after all biological organisms
not angels . . . If humans are part of the natural world, not
supernatural beings, then human intelligence has its scope and limits,
determined by initial design. We can thus anticipate certain questions
will not fall within [our] cognitive reach, just as rats are unable to
run mazes with numerical properties, lacking the appropriate concepts.
Such questions, we might call ‘mysteries-for-human’, just as some
questions pose ‘mysteries-for-rats’. Among these mysteries may be
questions we raise, and others we do not know how to formulate properly
or at all…
We will discover what we can about the nature of the world, and, among
the truths about it, I believe we will find that part of our genetic
capacity, which evolved over millennia, is that CERTAIN MORAL
PRINCIPLES ARE INCORPORATED IN IT; probably genetically determined.
To try to discover them is, of course, a big task.
7.4 THE Mega Instinct is rooted both in our biology (immanent within)
and beyond it (transcendent of).
7.5 THE 7 Mega Values (or Mega Motivations) are represented by the 7
Colours of the Rainbow – and form the major part of the book.
7.6 THE Mega Instinct is not only biologically immanent, it is also
transcendent – and controls (or can control) all other instincts.
7.7 IT is both Theory & Practice combined. Anselm Acid Test….
NOTES – CONCLUSION
(a) Humanities (eg Philosophy & Religion),
(b) Social Sciences (eg Psychology, Politics & Government, Business
Management & Occupational Psychology, Employment & Training,
Self-Help/Health Psychology, Cognitive Science & Biolinguistics),
(c) Education (eg Teaching), History (eg of Ideas)
Who will buy it ?
Academic, Educational, Corporate Training, Self-Help & International
Universities & Libraries. Students (eg under-graduate & post-graduate
levels), Professionals, Individuals, Trainers, Directors & Managers.
WHAT makes this ‘Mega’ Book better than other books on the same subject?
The biggest weakness of other directly-related books, like “Moral
Minds” by Marc Hauser, is that they are only rooted in biology.
THE strength of this Book – the unique selling point (USP) – is that
the Mega Instinct is not only immanent within our biology & psychology,
but also transcendent of it…which opens up new horizons.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Richard W. Symonds describes himself as “a man of many parts, most of
which don’t work – especially my ears – I am very deaf”.
Richard is aged 63, and lives in Ifield, ‘Gatwick City’ of Crawley –
He is a writer (after retiring from work at Gatwick Airport – due
to the onset of deafness) and Campaigner
Member of Chartered Institute of Personnel Development (CIPD) & Member
of International Society For Philosophers (ISFP)
Founder Member of the Joad Society, Ifield Society, Bell Society, SCRAM
Campaigns, Gatwick City of Ideas (GCI).
Editor of Gatwick City Times
Research Projects & Analysis: including “The Mega Instinct”, “Mega
Motivation” and Personnel & Training Projects.
Biographer : “CEM Joad (1891-1953) – A Philosopher for Humanity”
(unpublished) and “The People’s Philosopher” (to be published)(co-written with Dr Geoffrey Thomas)
Described as “The Local Man of Letters” – after the quantity of letters published in local & regional papers over 30 years.
Richard Symonds can be contacted by email : email@example.com, or his
website Gatwick City of Ideas –
Gatwick City Times, or
Mobile : 07540 309592 (Text only – Very deaf)